Wednesday, 20 November 2013

RAAD ARE NOT LIBERATORS


Parents bringing kids for punishment shooting

'by appointment'

Mediator: Tommy McCourt

BY CHRIS KILPATRICK – 19 NOVEMBER 2013
Self-styled vigilante groups have previously ordered parents to bring their children to pre-arranged locations where they will be shot.

The mother of an 18-year-old shot in Londonderry last year told how she was instructed to drop him off and wait while he was shot twice.

The woman said she believed he was targeted because he was a drug user.

"I know what happened was wrong but hopefully he'll get help," she said.

The dissident group Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) is suspected to have been behind the attack.

"It should never have come to this, he shouldn't have been doing what he was doing," continued the woman.

"I don't agree with drug dealing and hopefully we can work from here to get him the help he needs."

She said she was ordered to bring her son to a specific place in the Creggan estate.

"He walked down the lane – I was standing at the top – and I heard two shots," she said.

"I ran down to him. There was blood coming from both of his legs, but he was lucid.

"I just did what had to be done."

Public rallies have been staged in Derry against the actions of RAAD.

Its members have carried out dozens of so-called punishment attacks across the north west in recent years.

The group claimed responsibility for the murder of Derry man Andrew Allenin Buncrana, Co Donegal, in February last year.

A few months later, RAAD joined forces with a number of other dissident groups, including the Real IRA, to form the New IRA.

Last month, six young men from Londonderry were said to have been "exiled" by dissident republicans.

Tommy McCourt, of Rosemount Resource Centre (RRC), who acts as mediator, said the six were just the latest in a series of similar cases that was growing daily .

The men, all aged between 19 and 25, were accused of a range of crimes, including drug dealing, car theft and anti-social behaviour.

While two are still away, negotiations brokered by RRC between the paramilitaries and their families resulted in the threat being lifted – at least temporarily – against the others and they have been allowed to return.

Mr McCourt previously told the Belfast Telegraph: "People may be shocked at these six young men being told to leave Derry but we are being asked to mediate in cases where threats have been made against someone practically every single day of the week."

THE AUTHOR OF THIS BLOG UNFORTUNATELY HAS TO AGREE WITH MOST OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT, DRUGS NEED TO BE LEGALIZED AS PART OF THE SOLUTION AND THE TRADE NEEDS TO BECOME TRANSPARENT. pEOPLE NEED TO HAVE THE COURAGE TO DEMAND THIS AND MAKE IT HAPPEN FOR OUR CHILDREN;S SAKE.

RAAD’S VERY EXISTENCE A CHALLENGE TO OUR SOCIETY





In case you have not noticed, there is a group in Derry called RAAD (Republican Action against Drugs). They represent no-one, are accountable to no-one and are wanted by no-one. These would-be vigilantes are parasites on the backs of the Derry people. So far they have issued threats, carried out beatings, exiled young people, knee-capped alleged drug dealers and apparently have even been involved in a murder. Their sole reason d’être is to terrorise. If they are not stopped soon they may even succeed.

During last week I listened in complete shock to the BBC’s Mark Simpson report on the two sets of parents who delivered up their children to RAAD for punishment beatings. It was riveting radio.  These parents were clearly not only terrorised, but traumatised too. That they delivered up their own children to a set of hooded thugs to be shot in the legs is mind-blowing. The parents tried to explain their situation to a clearly horrified presenter. There is no doubt that these parents must have felt trapped and isolated, but there is no rational explanation for their actions. These days we know that it is not inconceivable that some parents abuse and beat their children.  We know that there are those who abuse their parents. It’s not only hard to imagine anyone offering up their children or parents for a punishment beating at the hands of strangers – it’s incomprehensible.

The mother in the story spoke of taking her son by the hand and leaving him with the thugs who then would shoot into his legs. She said she glanced back, walked on until she heard the shots and then ran to her son. He was allegedly involved with drugs. The father whose son got shot was not involved in drugs but in a feud. The father said the gunmen mucked up the shooting from the start and had to bang the gun against a wall to release the cartridges. Both parents said they felt they had no option and at least by taking this punishment their children were alive today. Sorry, but for me that does not wash. It seems at least one of these punishment attacks could have gone horribly wrong. What if these cowboy gunmen had misfired or shot into an artery? The young man would now be dead. How would one feel then?

However, as outraged as one can feel about these events, we as a community have failed these families. It’s impossible to walk in their shoes but I would not offer my worst enemy up for a punishment beating. Why did these parents feel they had no options? In their heart of hearts they know that it is not normal to hand over children to be abused. Why did these parents feel that what they did was better than dealing with the police?  RAAD’s leaders are apparently known as former senior members of the IRA – why are they still walking the streets?

When faced with the cul de sac of rough justice these communities obviously need help. They cannot face down these terrorists alone. Policing has these failed communities living under the cosh of not so former paramilitaries.  Local women are leading the fight back in Derry – they are showing remarkable courage. Political representatives need to stand with them in solidarity.  One solution is the higher visibility of police on the ground. It’s a proven fact that communities feel less fearful when there are more Bobbies on the beat. The communities most vulnerable from the preying thuggery of paramilitaries are obviously living in fear and it is the responsibility of the police to reduce that fear factor.

For some the existence of RAAD is an embarrassing reminder of the all-too-recent past. Remember, there are those now in positions of responsibility who once adjudicated in kangaroo courts; those who once issued banishments like parking tickets; those whose wardrobes were never without a balaclava; those who left naked bodies on roadsides in rubbish bags and those who operated a mafia-type omerta to terrorise entire communities. 

 The existence of RAAD is not only an affront to democracy but a challenge to our society. We need to demonstrate the same level of intolerance towards members of RAAD as they have contempt towards us. We need to clean our streets of the scum whose sole mark of bravery is to terrorise a father or mother into surrendering their children for some kind of medieval justice.  Derry won’t be free until it’s free of RAAD.

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+27

Amonrosier90p· 23 hours ago
I've always detested the brutal act of shooting people in the knees. I would die first before handing my child over to people who use Irish Republicanism as a guise to bolster their own personal feelings of self admiration.

It's not a true Irish Republican doctrine to hurt teenagers, to maim them forever and to stand in their way of fulfilling their lives. In fact it's the opposite, Irish Republicanism is meant to enthuse and bolster the very best that our youth has to offer regardless of social class or political persuasions or family status.

Criminality does happen, especially with youth living in poverty, but with age most kids will mature and turn away from crime when they want to settle down. We must allow flexibility for the tougher years of adolescence.

Drugs are a scourge on all of our communities and the families and individuals effected by them deserve our help and support. But the vast majority of these kids are selling dope to friends to feed their own habits. They are addicts, not criminal masterminds making a fortune.
Many of them are victims, although it's sometimes very difficult to see past their activities. But they have been mired and compromised by a failed society that doesn't know how to deal with its own past, including the thousands who were "kneecapped" or crucified in repulsive so called punishment beatings.
They are leaving school undereducated, and underloved, feeling valueless. Much of our youth live in direct dysfunction, with mothers and fathers enmeshed in alcoholism and popping pills. They don't partake in anything worthwhile because they have never seen anything worthwhile.

How dare any ignoramus put a gun to one of these children.
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+6

citybloke99p· 22 hours ago
You can wrap it up in whatever language you want - these actions are barbaric and have no place in a civilised society.
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+5

seenitallbefore77p· 17 hours ago
anyhow it,s only 5% of the the population who are involved in this crap.
self inflicted i say .
get on with your life ? and let the 95%get on with theirs............
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+3

TJMcClean117p· 21 hours ago
If the police are largely impotent therefore seen as irrelevant by many living in certain areas and the courts issue only weak limited fines, suspended sentences or short jail sentences, then frustrated angry residents will always be tempted to look to the paramilitaries, to sort out problems like vandalism, stealing, drug abuse, anti-social behaviour etc. This is the inevitable outcome of a total break down in the application of law and order in these areas.
I am merely stating the obvious.
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+4

upload105p· 21 hours ago
How dare any ignoramus put a gun to one of these children. ...............Yep, couldn't agree with your comments more. Then the cowards must know how to pick their victims so as they know whose parents will not come tooled up to eliminate the judge and jury. Yes drug dealing is a scourge on our society but so is shooting to handicapp our young people for the rest of their life..
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+1

ACHUSLA-107p· 1 minute ago
Kneecapping for this activity is definitely non=republican and anti-social.
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Republican Action Against Drugs
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) is an Irish republican vigilante group active mainly in Derry and the surrounding area; including Strabane and Dungiven in Northern Ireland, and Letterkenny and Inishowen in the Republic of Ireland. It targets those who it claims are drug dealers.[1] The group's methods include "punishment shootings" (which often involves kneecapping); pipe bomb or arsonattacks on the property of alleged dealers; and warning, threatening or banishing the alleged dealers.[2] It has claimed responsibility for shooting dead one man and has vowed to "execute" a further five.

On 26 July 2012, it was announced that RAAD was merging with the Real Irish Republican Army, other independent republican paramilitary groups and some former members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (but not with the Continuity Irish Republican Army) into a unified formation known simply as the "Irish Republican Army", and that RAAD would subsequently cease to exist as a separate entity.[3][4]



Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Timeline
2.1 2009
2.2 2010
2.3 2011
2.4 2012
3 References


History[edit]

RAAD graffiti in the Bogside area of Derry

The group formed in late 2008. Shortly afterward, it offered an "amnesty" to all drug dealers, asking them to make themselves known to the group before giving an assurance that they had stopped dealing.[2] In an interview with the Derry Journal in August 2009, the group's leadership explained: "We would monitor the actions of those who have come forward and, given an adequate period of time, interest in those drug dealers would cease and they could start to lead normal lives".[2]

The group claims to have an intelligence network within the Derry area and stated, "We would never act unless we hold undeniable evidence that the person punished has been dealing in drugs. We regularly compile information on certain individuals – including CCTV footage and statements from those who have received drugs from these people".[2]

As its name suggests, it comes from an Irish republican background.[2] In the 1990s, a group calling itself Direct Action Against Drugs (DAAD) operated in Northern Ireland and used similar methods. Many believed that DAAD was linked to the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA).[5] On the topic of politics, RAAD's leadership said: "There is absolutely no political agenda within our organisation. Our only aim is to eliminate drug dealers from our society and put an end to them destroying our community".[2] However, the RAAD leadership also claimed that some of its members have been involved with the Provisional IRA in the past, and added that Sinn Féin members and officials "have approached us privately, claiming that they support what we are attempting to achieve".[2] In an October 2010 interview with theStrabane Chronicle, a RAAD spokesman claimed that all of its members are former republican volunteers who support the peace process.[6] During an investigation into RAAD in June 2012, the home of the Sinn Féin Mayor of Derry was raided and searched by the PSNI. [7]

The group was the focus of a BBC Northern Ireland Spotlight documentary in 2010.[8]

In April 2010, RAAD announced that its amnesty for drug dealers would end on 1 June 2010 and that anyone continuing to sell drugs afterwards could be killed.[9] In early June, the Derry Journal reported that RAAD had ordered ten drug dealers to leave Derry immediately.[10] The following month, it claimed that it had given another Derry man 48 hours to leave the country.[11] At about the same time, a Derry teenager publicly apologised for having sold drugs after he was threatened by the group.[12]

In July 2010, a 42-year-old Derry man was arrested after police found a "scanning device, paramilitary clothing and balaclavas" in his car and a makeshift stun gun in his home. He was described in court as a "key member" of RAAD, but he denied the charge and claimed the stun gun was for his own protection. A detective said that attacks by RAAD had lessened since the man's arrest. He waselectronically tagged and put under curfew.[13]

RAAD claimed its first killing in February 2012 when it shot dead Andrew Allen, a father of two, at his home in Buncrana, County Donegal. Although this was strongly denied by his family, the group claimed that Allen had been warned to stop drug dealing but had not done so. They added that Allen was one of six people who would be executed.[14] Later that month, it was reported that RAAD had begun operating in North Belfast, although it is not yet known if the Belfast group is linked to the one based in Derry.[15]

In June 2012, RAAD members attacked a PSNI vehicle in Derry with a blast bomb. This was the first time it had attacked the security forces. It said the attack was "a direct response to increased and ever more brutal attacks on republicans and their families" and warned that such attacks would continue "as long as the security forces continue to victimise republican areas". By the time of the attack, many republicans were claiming that RAAD had become a political, dissident republican group.[16] On 26 July, an announcement was made that RAAD was merging with the Real IRA and other dissident republican paramilitaries.[3][4] The Continuity IRA was not one of these groups.[3]
Timeline[edit]

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. (July 2010)


The following is a timeline of actions that have been claimed by, or blamed on, Republican Action Against Drugs.
2009[edit]
16 April: RAAD claimed responsibility for detonating a pipe bomb at a house on Balmoral Avenue, Derry, County Londonderry.[17]
8 June: RAAD claimed responsibility for detonating a pipe bomb under a car in Manorcunningham, County Donegal.[18]
7 October: RAAD claimed responsibility for kidnapping and shooting a 27-year-old man in the foot in Derry.[19][20]
17 October: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 17-year-old boy in both legs at a house on Virginia Court, Derry.[21]
6 December: RAAD claimed responsibility for planting five pipe bombs in Derry. Four targeted cars and the fifth was planted behind a house. Three of the bombs exploded.[22]
11 December: RAAD claimed responsibility for kidnapping and shooting two men (aged 29 and 27) in the legs in Derry. One of the men later admitted that he had been involved in dealing "dodgy merchandise".[23]
2010[edit]
27 January: RAAD was blamed for shooting a 52-year-old man in the legs at his shop on Waterloo Street, Derry. It is thought the man was targeted for selling 'legal highs'. The attacker fled on a motorcycle.[24][25][26][27]
23 February: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 29-year-old man in both legs on Rinmore Drive, Derry. In a statement to a local newspaper, RAAD claimed that the man had been warned about his activities and that he had been "punished" for failing to heed that warning.[28]
28 March: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding two pipe bombs in Derry. One exploded in a van on High Park and another exploded in a car on Carrickreagh Gardens.[29]
28 March: RAAD claimed responsibility for planting an explosive device outside a head shop in Letterkenny, County Donegal. It was made safe by the security forces. In a statement, RAAD said it was the "first and only warning" the shop would receive. It closed shortly thereafter.[30][31]
30 March: RAAD claimed in a statement that its members had fired a shot at a house in Dungiven, County Londonderry. It added that the members "arrested" a man in the town who later "gave an undertaking to cease his activity immediately".[29]
13 April: RAAD were blamed for shooting a 24-year-old man in the leg at his house on Cable Street, Derry.[32][33]
19 April: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding two pipe bombs at houses in the Derry area. One exploded at a house on Spruce Meadows in Culmore and another at a house on Westland Street in Derry.[34][35]
19 April: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 24-year-old man in both legs at a house on Lisnafin Park in Strabane, County Tyrone.[36][37]
20 April: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding a pipe bomb outside a house on Dunmore Gardens, Derry.[37]
21 April: RAAD were blamed for exploding a pipe bomb outside a house on Anderson Crescent, Limavady.[32][38]
15 May: RAAD were believed to have been behind a gun attack on a house in Newry, County Down.[39][40]
21 May: RAAD were blamed for shooting an 18-year-old man in the leg in Newry.[40]
22 May: RAAD were blamed for shooting a 25-year-old man in his home at Glebe Gardens, Strabane. He was shot once in each leg and once in the arm. The man had recently returned from England, after being threatened by RAAD for dealing cocaine. The gunmen told him to leave Northern Ireland within 24 hours.[41][42] On 3 June, the man's then-vacant house was set alight.[43]
23 May: RAAD were blamed for exploding a pipe bomb in a car at O'Nolan Park, Strabane.[32][44]
27 May: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding a pipe bomb at a house in Springhill Park, Strabane. The group said it was a warning to the owner to cease drug dealing.[10][45]
28 May: RAAD claimed responsibility for planting a pipe bomb in Celtic Bar on Stanley's Walk, Derry. It failed to explode.[10][46]
3 June: RAAD were blamed for exploding a pipe bomb inside a parked car in the Ballycolman area of Strabane. Four masked men smashed the car window and threw the bomb inside shortly after midnight.[47][48]
3 June: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding a pipe bomb inside a car in the Ardgrange area of Derry.[49][50]
8 June: RAAD claimed responsibility for exploding a pipe bomb at the door of a house in the Ardgrange area of Derry. It said that the owner was a "career criminal" and was selling heroin.[50][51]
8 June: RAAD claimed that it held a "show of strength" in the Creggan area of Derry. RAAD members allegedly searched a row of shops before firing 80 shots in the air using automatic weapons.[50]
15 June: RAAD claimed to have seized "several thousand" ecstasy pills from a criminal gang and handed them to a community worker in Derry for destruction.[52]
25 June: RAAD were blamed for exploding a pipe bomb at the front door of a house on Hawthorn Drive, Derry. The house was owned by a convicted drug smuggler and his partner, who had recently been fined for drug possession.[53][54] The group later claimed responsibility.
17 July: RAAD were blamed for shooting a taxi driver in both legs at Glebe Gardens, Strabane.[32][44]
26 July: RAAD claimed responsibility for raiding a house in Dunmore Gardens, Derry. Four men entered the house (which was occupied) and fired shots before leaving. RAAD stated that the homeowner had ignored its warnings to stop dealing drugs. The man later admitted this, and claimed that he had stopped dealing drugs since the raid.[55][56]
31 August: RAAD claimed responsibility for firing shots at a house in Dove Gardens, Derry. It also claimed to have discovered and destroyed 12 cannabis plants in a house a week earlier. When the PSNI responded to the incident they were attacked with petrol bombs and other missiles.[57]
18 September: A RAAD member fired warning shots during a disturbance on Bligh's Lane, Derry. A news report claimed that shots were fired at a group of youths,[58] but RAAD claimed that the shots had been fired "over their heads". In a statement to the Derry Journal, it said "We were left with no option but to act after the people involved attacked a house at Rinmore Drive to gain entry to drink and take drugs". It also claimed that the youths had been involved in "drug dealing, drug taking, joyriding, assaults, arson and intimidation of local residents" in the area.[59]
17 October: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 20-year-old man in the legs at his home in Slievemore Park, Derry. He had been convicted of assaulting an ambulance driver in 2007 and RAAD claimed that he continued to be involved in "anti-social behaviour and criminality".[60]
23 October: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 20-year-old man as he delivered food to a house in Creggan Heights, Derry. He was hit six times in the legs. The group claimed he was involved in drug dealing and that had been "under close surveillance" for the past ten months.[61] The man later admitted being a drug dealer and claimed to have stopped after the shooting.[62]
21 November: RAAD were blamed for exploding a pipe bomb inside a man's car at Cromore Gardens, Derry. The man, who wasPortuguese, denied being involved in drug dealing.[63]
2011[edit]
7 March: RAAD claimed responsibility for firing shots at a house in Muff, County Donegal. In a statement, it said it had "attempted to execute" a named individual, adding, "Only for a malfunctioning weapon he would be dead".[64] On 24 May 2011, it claimed responsibility for an incendiary bomb attack on the same house.[65]
13 March: RAAD was blamed for shooting a 20-year-old man in the legs at Springhill Park, Strabane.[66]
2 June: RAAD claimed responsibility for detonating a small bomb at the door of a house on Lecky Road, Derry. Shrapnel went through two nearby windows but there were no injuries.[67] The group apologized for "causing any distress".[68] On 7 July, it claimed responsibility for shooting a 36-year-old man in the legs at a house on the same road.[69]
17 November: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a 61-year-old man at a house in Ballyarnet, Derry. Three days later, it claimed responsibility for shooting a 22-year-old man in the legs at a house on Creggan Road in the city.[70]
13 December: RAAD was blamed for shooting two men in the legs at High Park, Derry. One of them was a nephew of Martin McGuinness.[71]
2012[edit]
9 February: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting dead Andrew Allen (24) at his home in Buncrana, County Donegal. The shots were fired through the window of a ground-floor bedroom after gunmen failed to gain entry through the door. The car used by the gunmen was later found burnt-out at Fahan. RAAD said that Allen had been warned to stop drug dealing but had not done so. It also said that he had used RAAD's name to scare other dealers.[14]
3 April: RAAD claimed responsibility for beating a 26-year-old man and shooting him in the leg at his home in the Ballycolman area of Strabane.[72]
26 April: In Derry, a mother was forced to bring her 18-year-old son to be shot in the legs by members of RAAD. The mother said her son had been "dealing drugs to feed his habit".[73] She added, "It could have been worse. I honestly feared that he was going to be found dead having overdosed in a flat somewhere ... I also believe that it was better he is shot in the legs now, than shot in the head further down the line".[74] Two days later, about 200 people attended an anti-RAAD rally in the city.[75]
1 May: RAAD claimed responsibility for shooting a man in both arms and both legs in County Donegal. [76]
2 June: RAAD claimed responsibility for throwing a blast bomb at a PSNI vehicle at a security alert in Derry. They also warned that more attacks on security forces would follow.[16]
References[edit]

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Jump up^ Published on Monday 14 June 2010 14:11 (2010-06-14)."RAAD 'seize E tabs from gang' - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
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Jump up^ "Pipe bomb attack on Derry home". BBC News. 25 June 2010.
Jump up^ Published on Friday 30 July 2010 12:52 (2010-07-30). "Gun attack was 'terrifying' - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ "PSNI explore RAAD link to Derry shooting". BBC News. 27 July 2010.
Jump up^ Published on Friday 3 September 2010 13:07 (2010-09-03)."RAAD warn over support for 'hard men' - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ "Councillor claims 'shots fired at crowd' in Londonderry".BBC News. 20 September 2010.
Jump up^ Published on Friday 24 September 2010 12:48 (2010-09-24)."RAAD gunman 'wasn't drunk' - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ "Fear that Derry shooting victim 'could lose use of leg'". BBC News. 19 October 2010.
Jump up^ Published on Monday 25 October 2010 14:58 (2010-10-25)."Vigilante group admits Creggan Heights shooting - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ Published on Friday 5 November 2010 17:34 (2010-11-05)."Shooting victim admits being a drug dealer - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/why-target-us-ask-the-victims-of-two-pipebomb-blasts-15011136.html. Missing or empty |title=(help)
Jump up^ Published on Friday 11 March 2011 12:17 (2011-03-11)."RAAD admit Muff attack - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ Published on Tuesday 24 May 2011 14:21 (2011-05-24)."RAAD warn estate agents - Local". Derry Journal. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
Jump up^ "Children moved away from site of Strabane shooting". BBC News. 14 March 2011.
Jump up^ "Police say children had a lucky escape in Derry blast". BBC News. 3 June 2011.
Jump up^ "RAAD 'apology' ridiculed". Derry Journal. 7 June 2011.
Jump up^ "We will defend our community: RAAD". Derry Journal. 13 July 2011.
Jump up^ "Two held over Derry shooting are released". Belfast Telegraph. 25 November 2011.
Jump up^ "Martin McGuinness's newphew is victim in double shooting". Belfast Telegraph. 14 December 2011.
Jump up^ "RAAD claimed responsibility for Strabane shooting".Belfast Telegraph, 5 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
Jump up^ "Mother's anguish after she was ordered to bring son to be shot". Belfast Telegraph, 30 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
Jump up^ " ‘I hope he listens now’ - Mum ordered to bring son to be shot ". Derry Journal, 30 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
Jump up^ "Protest rally against RAAD is held in Londonderry". BBC News, 28 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
Jump up^ "BBC News - Andrew Allen 'threatened' before murder". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2012-07-12.

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