Thursday, May 1, 2014

MAYDAY MAY DAY ! WELEASE GERRY ADAMS






The Internationale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Internationale
Internationalen-menander.jpg
Internationalen in Swedish.

International anthem of
International Communist Movement
International Socialist Movement
International Social Democratic Movement
International Anarchist Movement

Also known asL'Internationale (French)
LyricsEugène Pottier, 1871
MusicPierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted1890s
Music sample
0:00
"The Internationale" (French: "L'Internationale") is a widely sung left-winganthem. It has been one of the most recognizable and popular songs of thesocialist movement since the late 19th century, when the Second International (now theSocialist International) adopted it as its official anthem. The original French refrain of the song is C'est la lutte finale / Groupons-nous et demain / L'Internationale / Sera le genre humain. (English: "This is the final struggle / Let us group together and tomorrow / The Internationale / Will be the human race.") "The Internationale" has been translated into many languages. It is often sung with the left hand raised in a clenched fist salute and is sometimes followed (in English-speaking places) with a chant of "The workers united will never be defeated." "The Internationale" has been celebrated by socialists,communistsanarchistsdemocratic socialists, and some social democrats.

Original lyrics and copyright[edit]

The original French words were written in June 1871 by Eugène Pottier (1816–1887, previously a member of the Paris Commune)[1] and were originally intended to be sung to the tune of "La Marseillaise".[2] Pierre De Geyter (1848–1932) set the poem to music in 1888.[3] His melody was first publicly performed in July 1888[4] and became widely used soon after.
In an unsuccessful attempt to save Pierre De Geyter's job as a woodcarver, the 6,000 leaflets printed by Lille printer Bolboduc only mentioned the French version of his family name (Degeyter). In 1904, Pierre's brother Adolphe was induced by the Lille mayorGustave Delory to claim copyright, so that the income of the song would continue to go to Delory's French Socialist Party. Pierre De Geyter lost the first copyright case in 1914, but after his brother committed suicide and left a note explaining the fraud, Pierre was declared the copyright owner by a court of appeal in 1922.[5]
Pierre De Geyter died in 1932. The duration of copyright in France is 70 years following the end of the year when the author died. Previously, for musical works,[6] additional protection for 6 years and 152 days to compensate for World War I, and 8 years and 120 days to compensate for World War II,[7] was allowed, so his music of the "Internationale" would have been expected to remain copyrighted in France until October 2017.[8] However, the 1995 harmonization of copyright term across the European Union at 70 years without extension means that the musical composition fell into the public domain in France at the end of 2002. Nonetheless, in 2005, Le Chant du Monde, the corporation administering the authors' rights, asked Pierre Merejkowsky, the film director and an actor of Insurrection / résurrection, to pay €1,000 for whistling the song for seven seconds.[9] This position is inconsistent with a 2007 decision of the Cour de Cassation clarifying the matter.
As the "Internationale" music was published before 1 July 1909 outside the United States of America, it is in the public domain in the United States.[10] As of 2013, Pierre De Geyter's music is also in the public domain in countries and areas whose copyright durations are authors' lifetime plus 80 years or less.[11] As Eugène Pottier died in 1887, his original French lyrics are in the public domain. Gustave Delory once acquired the copyright of his lyrics through the songwriter G B Clement having bought it from Pottier's widow.[12]
French lyricsLiteral English translation
First stanza
Debout, les damnés de la terre
Debout, les forçats de la faim
La raison tonne en son cratère
C'est l'éruption de la fin
Du passé faisons table rase
Foule esclave, debout, debout
Le monde va changer de base
Nous ne sommes rien, soyons tout
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
Stand up, damned of the Earth
Stand up, prisoners of starvation
Reason thunders in its volcano
This is the eruption of the end.
Of the past let us make a clean slate
Enslaved masses, stand up, stand up.
The world is about to change its foundation
We are nothing, let us be all.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|
Second stanza
Il n'est pas de sauveurs suprêmes
Ni Dieu, ni César, ni tribun
Producteurs, sauvons-nous nous-mêmes
Décrétons le salut commun
Pour que le voleur rende gorge
Pour tirer l'esprit du cachot
Soufflons nous-mêmes notre forge
Battons le fer quand il est chaud
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
There are no supreme saviours
Neither God, nor Caesar, nortribune.
Producers, let us save ourselves,
Decree the common salvation.
So that the thief expires,
So that the spirit be pulled from its prison,
Let us fan our forge ourselves
Strike the iron while it is hot.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race.  :|
Third stanza
L'État comprime et la loi triche
L'impôt saigne le malheureux
Nul devoir ne s'impose au riche
Le droit du pauvre est un mot creux
C'est assez, languir en tutelle
L'égalité veut d'autres lois
Pas de droits sans devoirs dit-elle
Égaux, pas de devoirs sans droits
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
The State oppresses and the law cheats.
Tax bleeds the unfortunate.
No duty is imposed on the rich;
The rights of the poor is an empty phrase.
Enough languishing in custody!
Equality wants other laws:
No rights without duties, she says,
Equally, no duties without rights.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|
Fourth stanza
Hideux dans leur apothéose
Les rois de la mine et du rail
Ont-ils jamais fait autre chose
Que dévaliser le travail ?
Dans les coffres-forts de la bande
Ce qu'il a créé s'est fondu
En décrétant qu'on le lui rende
Le peuple ne veut que son dû.
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
Hideous in their apotheosis
The kings of the mine and of the rail.
Have they ever done anything other
Than steal work?
Inside the safeboxes of the gang,
What work had created melted.
By ordering that they give it back,
The people want only their due.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|
Fifth stanza
Les rois nous saoulaient de fumées
Paix entre nous, guerre aux tyrans
Appliquons la grève aux armées
Crosse en l'air, et rompons les rangs
S'ils s'obstinent, ces cannibales
À faire de nous des héros
Ils sauront bientôt que nos balles
Sont pour nos propres généraux
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
The kings made us drunk with fumes,
Peace among us, war to the tyrants!
Let the armies go on strike,
Stocks in the air, and break ranks.
If they insist, these cannibals
On making heroes of us,
They will know soon that our bullets
Are for our own generals.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|
Sixth stanza
Ouvriers, paysans, nous sommes
Le grand parti des travailleurs
La terre n'appartient qu'aux hommes
L'oisif ira loger ailleurs
Combien de nos chairs se repaissent
Mais si les corbeaux, les vautours
Un de ces matins disparaissent
Le soleil brillera toujours.
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|
Workers, peasants, we are
The great party of labourers.
The earth belongs only to men;
The idle will go to reside elsewhere.
How much of our flesh have they consumed?
But if these ravens, these vultures
Disappear one of these days,
The sun will shine forever.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The Internationale
  Will be the human race. :|

Translations into other languages[edit]

The German version, Die Internationale, was adopted by the protesters on the streets of East Berlin in 1953 and again in October 1989, when East Germans taken prisoner by their own police following demonstrations in the wake of Mikhail Gorbachev's visit sang the hymn to embarrass their captors by suggesting they had abandoned the socialist cause they were supposed to serve. Luckhardt's version, the standard German translation, of the final line of the chorus tellingly reads: "Die Internationale erkämpft das Menschenrecht". (The Internationale will win our human rights.) It was coupled with the chant: "Volkspolizei, steh dem Volke bei" (People's police, stand with the people!). The Internationale in Chinese(simplified Chinese国际歌traditional Chinese國際歌pinyinGuójìgē), literally theInternational Song, has several different sets of lyrics. One such version served as the de facto anthem of the Communist Party of China,[13] the national anthem of the Chinese Soviet Republic,[14] as well as a rallying song of the students and workers at theTiananmen Square protests of 1989.[15]
Versions of the song in Indian languages, particularly Bengali and Malayalam, have existed since the time of colonial rule. It was translated into Bengali by the radical poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and subsequently by Hemanga Biswas. The Malayalam version of the song has also existed since the 1950s with the translation of the song for the people of the Indian state ofKerala by actor and social activist Premji for the united Communist Party of India (CPI). In the 1980s, more translations appeared. Translations by Sachidanandan and Mokeri Ramachandran were sung by the activists of Janakeeya Samskarikavedi, an organisation connected with CPI(Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML). Translation by N. P. Chandrasekharan was for Students Federation of India (SFI), the student organisation associated withCPI(Marxist) (CPI(M) and published in the Student Monthly, the organ of SFI.
Nepali translations of the song have also been sung in various parts of Nepal, and Kathmandu and the song has been popularised by the Nepali Maoists.

Russian lyrics[edit]

Интернационал
English: The Internationale
Internatsional

National anthem of
 Russian SFSR
 Soviet Union
CPSU
CPRF
RCWP-CPSU
RCYL(B)

LyricsArkady Yakovlevich Kots, 1902
MusicPierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted1918 (as anthem of Russian SFSR)
1922 (as anthem of Soviet Union)
Relinquished1944
Music sample
0:00
The Russian version was initially translated by Aron Kots (Arkady Yakovlevich Kots) in 1902 and printed in London in Zhizn, a Russian émigré magazine. The first Russian version consisted of three stanzas (as opposed to six stanzas in the original French lyrics, and based on stanzas 1, 2 and 6) and the refrain. After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the text was slightly re-worded to get rid of "now useless" future tenses - particularly the refrain was reworded (the future tense was replaced by the present, and the first person plural possessive pronoun was introduced). In 1918, the chief-editor of IzvestiaYuri Steklov, appealed to Russian writers to translate the other three stanzas and in the end, the song was expanded into six stanzas.[16] In 1944, the Soviet Union adopted the "Hymn of the Soviet Union" as its national anthem. Prior to that time, the "Internationale" served as the principal musical expression of allegiance to the ideals of the October Revolution and the Soviet Union. (The "Internationale" continued to be recognized as the official song of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the post-1919 Soviet version is still used by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.) The three stanzas by Kots were as follows:
Russian translationLatin alphabet transliterationLiteral English translation
First stanza
Вставай, проклятьем заклеймённый,
Весь мир голодных и рабов!
Кипит наш разум возмущённый
И в смертный бой вести готов.
Весь мир насилья мы разрушим
До основанья, а затем
Мы наш, мы новый мир построим, —
Кто был ничем, тот станет всем.
Припев:
 |: Это есть наш последний
  И решительный бой;
  С Интернационалом
  Воспрянет род людской! :|

Vstavay, proklyat'yem zakleym'yonny,
ves' mir golodnykh i rabov!
Kipit nash razum vozmushchyonny
I v smertniy boy vesti gotov.
Ves' mir nasilya my razrushim
do osnovanya, a zatem
my nash, my novy mir postroim, —
kto byl nichem, tot stanyet vsem.

Pripev:
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|

Stand up, ones who are branded by the curse,
All the world's starving and enslaved!
Our outraged minds are boiling,
Ready to lead us into a deadly fight.
We will destroy this world of violence
Down to the foundations, and then
We will build our new world.
He who was nothing will become everything!

CHORUS:
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|
Second stanza
Никто не даст нам избавленья:
Ни бог, ни царь и не герой!
Добьёмся мы освобожденья
Своею собственной рукой.
Чтоб свергнуть гнёт рукой умелой,
Отвоевать своё добро, —
Вздувайте горн и куйте смело,
Пока железо горячо!
 |: Это есть наш последний
  И решительный бой;
  С Интернационалом
  Воспрянет род людской! :|
Nikto ne dast nam izbavlenya:
Ni bog, ni tsar i ne geroy!
Dobyomsya my osvobozhdenya
Svoyeyu sobstvennoy rukoy.
Chtob svergnut' gn'ot rukoy umyeloy,
Otvoyevat' svoyo dobro, –
Vzduvaitye gorn i kuitye smyelo,
Poka zhelezo goryacho!
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|
No one will grant us deliverance,
Not god, nor tsar, nor hero.
We will win our liberation,
With our very own hands.
To throw down oppression with a skilled hand,
To take back what is ours –
Fire up the furnace and hammer boldly,
while the iron is still hot!
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|
Third stanza
Довольно кровь сосать, вампиры,
Тюрьмой, налогом, нищетой!
У вас — вся власть, все блага мира,
А наше право — звук пустой !
Мы жизнь построим по-иному —
И вот наш лозунг боевой:
Вся власть народу трудовому!
А дармоедов всех долой!
 |: Это есть наш последний
 И решительный бой;
 С Интернационалом
 Воспрянет род людской! :|
Dovoľno krov sosať, vampiry,
Tyurmoy, nalogom, nischetoy!
U vas — vsya vlasť, vsye blaga mira,
A nashe pravo — zvuk pustoy!
My zhizn' postroim po-inomu —
I vot nash lozung boyevoy:
Vsya vlasť narodu trudovomu!
A darmoyedov vseh doloy!
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|
You've sucked enough of our blood, you vampires,
With prison, taxes and poverty!
You have all the power, all the blessings of the world,
And our rights are but an empty sound!
We'll make our own lives in a different way -
And here is our battle cry:
All the power to the people of labour!
And away with all the parasites!
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|
Fourth stanza
Презренны вы в своём богатстве,
Угля и стали короли!
Вы ваши троны, тунеядцы,
На наших спинах возвели.
Заводы, фабрики, палаты —
Всё нашим создано трудом.
Пора! Мы требуем возврата
Того, что взято грабежом.
 |: Это есть наш последний
 И решительный бой;
 С Интернационалом
 Воспрянет род людской! :|
Prezrenny vy v svojom bogatstve,
Uglya i stali koroli!
Vy vashi trony, tuneyadtsy,
Na nashikh spinakh vozvyeli.
Zavody, fabriki, palaty —
Vsyo nashim sozdano trudom.
Pora! My trebuyem vozvrata
Togo, čto vzyato grabezhom.
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|
Contemptible you are in your wealth,
You kings of coal and steel!
You had your thrones, parasites,
At our backs erected.
All the factories, all the chambers -
All were made by our hands.
It's time! We demand the return
Of that which was stolen from us.
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|
Fifth stanza
Довольно королям в угоду
Дурманить нас в чаду войны!
Война тиранам! Мир Народу!
Бастуйте, армии сыны!
Когда ж тираны нас заставят
В бою геройски пасть за них —
Убийцы, в вас тогда направим
Мы жерла пушек боевых!
 |: Это есть наш последний
 И решительный бой;
 С Интернационалом
 Воспрянет род людской! :|
Dovol'no korolyam v ugodu
Durmanit' nas v chadu voiny!
Voina tiranam! Mir Narodu!
Bastuitye, armii syny!
Kogda zh tirany nas zastavyat
V boyu geroiski past' za nikh —
Ubiytsy, v vas togda napravim
my zherla pushek boyevyh!
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|
Enough of the will of kings
Stupefying us into the haze of war!
War to the tyrants! Peace to the people!
Go on strike, sons of the army!
And if the tyrants tell us
To fall heroically in battle for them -
Then, murderers, we will point
The muzzles of our cannons at you!
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|
Sixth stanza
Лишь мы, работники всемирной
Великой армии труда,
Владеть землёй имеем право,
Но паразиты – никогда!
И если гром великий грянет
Над сворой псов и палачей, —
Для нас всё так же солнце станет
Сиять огнём своих лучей.
 |: Это есть наш последний
  И решительный бой;
  С Интернационалом
  Воспрянет род людской! :|
Lish' my, rabotniki vsemirnoiy
Velikoy armii truda,
Vladet' zeml'yoi imeyem pravo,
No parazity – nikogda!
I yesli grom velikiy gr'anyet
Nad svoroy psov i palachey, –
Dlya nas vsyo tak zhe solntse stanyet
siyat' ognyom svoikh luchey.
 |: Eto yest nash posledniy
  I reshitelniy boy;
  S Internatsionalom
  vospryanet rod lyudskoy! :|
Only we, the workers of the worldwide
Great army of labour,
Have the right to own the land,
But the parasites - never!
And if the great thunder rolls
Over the pack of dogs and executioners,
For us, the sun will forever
Shine on with its fiery beams.
 |: This is our final
   and decisive battle;
   With the Internationale
   humanity will rise up! :|

English Lyrics[edit]

The traditional British version of The Internationale is usually sung in three verses, while the American version, written by Charles Hope Kerr with five verses, is usually sung in two.[17][18] The American version is sometimes sung with the phrase "the internationale", "the international soviet", or "the international union" in place of "the international working class". In English renditions, "Internationale" is sometimes sung as /ɪntərnæʃəˈnæli/rather than the French pronunciation of [lɛ̃tɛʁnasjɔnal(ə)].
The English versions are known to be notoriously difficult to sing, as the lyrics may appear sometimes forced and unnatural[citation needed]. British musician Billy Bragg, after talking to the American folk singerand activist Pete Seeger, agreed that the old lyrics were "archaic and unsingable".[19]However, the Scottish musician Dick Gaughan takes a different view.[20] Bragg composed revised verses for the song, based on the British version. The recording was released on his album The Internationale along with reworkings of other socialist songs. A full, six-stanza translation can be found on the Wikisource page on The Internationale.
British TranslationBilly Bragg's Revision[21]American version
First stanza
Arise, ye workers from your slumber,
Arise, ye prisoners of want.
For reason in revolt now thunders,
and at last ends the age of cant!
Away with all your superstitions,
Servile masses, arise, arise!
We'll change henceforth the old tradition,
And spurn the dust to win the prize!
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
Stand up, all victims of oppression,
For the tyrants fear your might!
Don't cling so hard to your possessions,
For you have nothing if you have no rights!
Let racist ignorance be ended,
For respect makes the empires fall!
Freedom is merely privilege extended,
Unless enjoyed by one and all.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal,
  Unites the human race.
Arise, the workers of all nations!
Arise, oppressed of the earth!
For justice thunders condemnation:
A better world's in birth!
No more tradition's chains shall bind us,
Arise, you slaves, no more in thrall!
The earth will rise on new foundations:
We, who were nothing, shall be all!
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!
Second stanza
No more deluded by reaction,
On tyrants only we'll make war!
The soldiers too will take strike action,
They'll break ranks and fight no more!
And if those cannibals keep trying,
To sacrifice us to their pride,
They soon shall hear the bullets flying,
We'll shoot the generals on our own side.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
Let no one build walls to divide us,
Walls of hatred nor walls of stone.
Come greet the dawn and stand beside us,
We'll live together or we'll die alone.
In our world poisoned by exploitation,
Those who have taken, now they must give!
And end the vanity of nations,
We've but one Earth on which to live.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal,
  Unites the human race.
We see through their disinformation:
Designs to turn us into war.
But soon, the soldiers in formation
Will break ranks and fight no more.
And if those cowards think it's their right
To sacrifice us to their dream,
They'll see the power of our own might;
It's time to end the old regime.
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!
Third stanza
No saviour from on high delivers,
No faith have we in prince or peer.
Our own right hand the chains must shiver,
Chains of hatred, greed and fear.
E'er the thieves will out with their booty,
And to all give a happier lot.
Each at his forge must do their duty,
And we'll strike the iron while it's hot.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
And so begins the final drama,
In the streets and in the fields.
We stand unbowed before their armour,
We defy their guns and shields!
When we fight, provoked by their aggression,
Let us be inspired by life and love.
For though they offer us concessions,
Change will not come from above!
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
Just we, the workers of the world-wide,
The mighty army of labor,
To own the planet have a true right -
But the parasites — never!
For too long we've endured exploitation,
Too long we've been the vulture's prey.
Farewell to days of condemnation!
The red dawn brings a bright new day!
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!
  Forward, brothers and sisters,
  And the last fight let us face;
  The Internationale
  Unites the human race!

In popular culture[edit]

The Internationale has also featured in numerous examples of popular culture:
  • In Billy Wilder's One, Two, Three (1961), the German version is sung by a group of marching demonstrators in East Berlin at the beginning of the film.
  • In the 1967 film La Chinoise, Serge wakes up his flatmates by playing an instrumental version on a radio.
  • The 1974 film Sweet Movie, features two different versions of the melody, one being played in 6/8 time signature with an accordion, the other one, played in 4/4 at fast tempo with an organ.
  • In the 1984 film Red Dawn, the song's second stanza can be heard playing during a military parade led by Colonel Strelnikov. Some consider this anachronistic and inaccurately used since the song was used exclusively by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and that this song is not designed to be a military march but a protest song.[clarification needed]
  • In the 1997 film Air Force One, the main antagonists' leader, General Alexander "Ivan" Radek, President of a neo-Soviet regime in Kazakhstan, is released from prison at the demand of the main antagonists. As Radek exits his cell, the other prisoners collectively sing the Russian version in honour of Radek and the Soviet Union.
  • In the 1999 film Cradle Will Rock by Tim RobbinsBill Murray's character Tommy Crickshaw sings one verse of the song (mostly from the "American Version" above) at the end. He's a ventriloquist at the end of his career, a man who once was a fiery radical, but who has now been reduced to a near nonentity. He can't even bring himself to sing it, so he sings it through his puppet.
  • The song "Hammerblow" from the 2008 album Susquehanna by American ska-swing band the Cherry Poppin' Daddies includes a verse of "L'Internationale" within its bridge ("L'Internationale/Sera le genre humain"). The song itself concerns an undergroundMarxist movement.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. first paragraph. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
  2. Jump up^ David Walls, Sonoma State University"Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?".
  3. Jump up^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. ninth paragraph. Archived from the originalon 2009-10-25.
  4. Jump up^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 11th paragraph. Archived from the originalon 2009-10-25.
  5. Jump up^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
  6. Jump up^ (French) Loi n° 85-660 du 3 juillet 1985, art. 8.
  7. Jump up^ Arts. L123-1, L123-8, and L123-9 in Chapter III of Title II of Book I of the Intellectual Property Code of France and its French version; see fr:Prorogations de guerre#Exception for commentary.
  8. Jump up^ Year 1932 when Pierre De Geyter died, plus 70 years until year end, plus 6 years and 152 days, plus 8 years and 120 days, will get to October 2017.
  9. Jump up^ (French) Siffloter « L'Internationale » peut coûter cher Le Monde, April 9, 2005
  10. Jump up^ Peter B. Hirtle. "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States".
  11. Jump up^ Year 1932 when Pierre De Geyter died, plus 80 years, would get to year 2012.
  12. Jump up^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 16th paragraph. Archived from the originalon 2009-10-25.
  13. Jump up^ (Chinese) Xinhua Net: 瞿秋白:译词传谱国际歌
  14. Jump up^ (Chinese) People's DailyHistory of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years
  15. Jump up^ Modern History Sourcebook: The Internationale
  16. Jump up^ A.V. Lunacharskiy(ed). "The International (in Russian)". Fundamental'naya Elektronnaya Biblioteka.
  17. Jump up^ David Walls, Sonoma State University"Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?".
  18. Jump up^ The Internationale in 82 languages
  19. Jump up^ Billy Bragg sings the Internationale at Pete Seeger's 90th birthday concert, May 3, 2009: [1]
  20. Jump up^ Scottish musician Dick Gaughan supports an older British English version [2]
  21. Jump up^ Billy BraggAlbums: The Internationale.

External links[edit]


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